Candida infection is now a major problem in the increasing immunocompromised population. Esophageal candidiasis, however, occurs mainly in three conditions; an immunocompromised state (leukemia, aquired immune deficiency syndrome), a fungi overgrowth state (long term administration of antibiotics), and a non-immunosuppressive state (healthy individuals). This condition presents most commonly with dysphagia, a feeling of obstruction on swallowing and substernal pain, alone or in combination. A double-contrast radiograph of the esophagus reveals shaggy mucosal irregularities, nodular filling defects and ulcerations. The characteristic endoscopic appearance of esophageal candidiasis is yellow-white plaques, scattered in the esophagus or covering the whole esophagus. We emphasize that the diagnosis of this condition should depend on mycological and histopathological evidence. Esophageal candidiasis is a condition that can be diagnosed with scientific confidence from histological proof of candidial tissue invasion in biopsy material from a lesion. Nystatin, fluconazole and amphotericin B have often been used successfully to treat this condition.