A case of synchronous triple cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and colon detected by using gastrointestinal screening endoscopy
In recent years, the detected number of multiple primary malignant tumors (MPMTs) in the gastrointestinal tract has been increasing with the advancement of gastrointestinal endoscopic equipment and the spread of endoscopic screening. Here, we report a case of synchronous MPMTs of the esophagus, stomach, and colon detected by means of gastrointestinal screening endoscopy. The patient was a 67-year-old man who regularly visited the medical clinic for hypertension. He had a history of alcohol consumption (sake index: 250, with alcohol flushing syndrome) and smoking (Brinkman index: 800), and a family history of cancer (his father had gastric cancer). At the medical clinic, he underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy for screening purposes. Prior observation with linked-color imaging (LCI), a type of image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), revealed an irregular depressed lesion in the mid-esophagus. Simultaneously, an irregular, highly deformed depressed lesion and a small depressed lesion were detected on the incisura of the lesser curvature and the lesser curvature of the antrum, respectively. The esophageal lesion was identified as squamous cell carcinoma and both gastric lesions were identified as well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment for esophageal and gastric cancer. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a well-defined, ulcerative tumor in the transverse colon. First, endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the esophageal lesion, followed by laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with D1+ lymph-node dissection and transverse colectomy with D2 lymph-node dissection for the gastric and colorectal lesions, respectively. Histopathologically, the main gastric and colonic tumors were in advanced stages; fortunately, the esophageal cancer was an early-stage lesion (7 ×5 mm, 0-IIc, pT1a-LPM, INFa, ly0, v0, pCurA), which has a much better prognosis than advanced esophageal cancer. In patients with multiple cancer risk factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history), it is important to consider the possibility of MPMTs. Furthermore, upper gastrointestinal observation combined with IEE, such as LCI, may be useful in the early detection of lesions.