Development of primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder immediately after cytomegalovirus viremia in an MDS patient who received cord blood transplantation
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), and EBV reactivation after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is highly correlated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, which might be a risk factor for PTLD. We encountered a myelodysplastic syndrome patient with PTLD in the central nervous system who experienced sequential CMV and EBV reactivation immediately after allo-HSCT. Previous studies have suggested relationships between CMV and EBV reactivation and between CMV reactivation and PTLD. Our case suggests the importance of CMV monitoring in patients after allo-HSCT to prevent PTLD.