Epidemiological Studies on Early-onset Myopia: A Review
The epidemiology of early-onset myopia has been investigated in terms of onset and progression with longitudinal (cohort) and cross-sectional studies. The majority of myopia in East Asia is early-onset myopia, which occurs in children, and the progression rate of myopia in myopic school children decreases with age. The onset of myopia at an earlier age is a predictive factor for future high-grade myopia, but the coefficient of determination is small. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of high myopia has led to a growing number of epidemiological studies that are directly related to myopia control studies, such as how to identify future high myopia at an early stage and how to predict myopia before its onset. We summarize the results from recent epidemiological studies.