Treatments and management for COVID-19
Humans have experienced three deadly pandemics in the twenty-first century which are associated with novel coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. In this review, the treatments and management of COVID-19 were discussed. Cytokine storm mechanisms and therapy, there is no doubt that the elucidation of the mechanisms of the cytokine storm is an important key to conquer this pandemic. Many clinical trials have indicated the inhibitory effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) for the treatment of COVID-19. Although no survival benefit was demonstrated in randomized, placebo-controlled studies, non-blinded, randomized studies have supported a survival benefit with IL-6 blockade. Inhibition of the excessive immune response in severe COVID-19 pneumonia undoubtedly improves the survival of patients, particularly through glucocorticoids given to those with oxygen requirements. From this point of view, timing of the administration of immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory agents is key issue. Prone position therapy was originally used to treat patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) resulting from pneumonia or sepsis. In the critically ill patients with severe pneumonitis, the prone position has been recommended as one of the most promising treatment options to improve mortality outcomes. Overall, this review covers, the epidemiology and the important aspects of the treatment and management against critically ill patients with COVID-19.